The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The name Plantagenet is used by modern historians to identify four distinct royal houses – the Angevins who were also Counts of Anjou, the main body of the Plantagenets following the loss of Anjou, and the houses of Lancaster and York, the Plantagenets’ two cadet branches. The family held the English throne from 1154 – with the accession of Henry II, until 1485 – when Richard III died.

Under the Plantagenets, England was transformed, although this was only partly intentional. The Plantagenet kings were often forced to negotiate compromises such as Magna Carta. These constrained royal power in return for financial and military support. The king was no longer just the most powerful man in the nation, holding the prerogative of judgement, feudal tribute and warfare. He now had defined duties to the realm, underpinned by a sophisticated justice system. A distinct national identity was shaped by conflict with the French, Scots, Welsh and Irish, and the establishment of English as the primary language.

In the 15th century, the Plantagenets were defeated in the Hundred Years’ War and beset with social, political and economic problems. Popular revolts were commonplace, triggered by the denial of numerous freedoms. English nobles raised private armies, engaged in private feuds and openly defied King Henry VI.

The rivalry between the House of Plantagenet’s two cadet branches of York and Lancaster brought about the Wars of the Roses, a decades-long fight for the English succession, culminating in the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, when the reign of the Plantagenets and the English Middle Ages both met their end with the death of King Richard IIIHenry VII, of Lancastrian descent, became king of England; two years later, he married Elizabeth of York, thus ending the Wars of the Roses, and giving rise to the Tudor dynasty

Based on data collected by Dr Turi King and team (refer Nature Article No. 6631), a Non-Paternal-Event (NPE) has occurred somewhere between King Richard III’s (1452-1485) lineage and King Edward III’s (1312 – 1377) lineage, as the YDNA does not match. King Richard III’s SNP Haplogroup signature is G-P287.

Whereas the 5th Duke of Beaufort SNP signature (as a proxy for King Edward III) is R-P312 > Z40481 > Z11 > R-U152 > ( with all the following U152 SNPs i.e. L2, Z36, Z56, M160, M126, Z192 having been tested and were all -ve, meaning other U152 SNPs require testing).

This article by DNAeXplained provides some more detail re the issues surrounding the conundrum of where is the NPE.